Papyrus fragment put to test

first_imgA wide range of scientific testing indicates that a papyrus fragment containing the words “Jesus said to them, my wife” is an ancient document, dating between the sixth to ninth centuries C.E. Its contents may originally have been composed as early as the second to fourth centuries.The fragment does not in any way provide evidence that the historical Jesus was married, as Karen L. King, the Hollis Professor of Divinity at Harvard Divinity School (HDS) has stressed since she announced the existence of the fragment in the fall of 2012. Rather the fragment belongs to early Christian debates over whether it was better for Christians to be celibate virgins or marry and have children. The fragment is important on this issue, according to King.“The main topic of the fragment is to affirm that women who are mothers and wives can be disciples of Jesus — a topic that was hotly debated in early Christianity as celibate virginity increasingly became highly valued,” she explained.King had written extensively about the meaning of the fragment and the testing in the latest edition of the Harvard Theological Review. The Divinity School has posted documents and articles related to the fragment on a special Web page. King first announced the existence of the fragment on Sept. 18, 2012, at the International Congress of Coptic Studies in Rome, and dubbed it “The Gospel of Jesus’ Wife.” The use of the word “gospel” makes no claim to canonical status. The term refers to the fragment’s most distinctive claim (that Jesus was married), and serves as a shorthand reference to the fragment, according to King.King received the fragment from its owner in December 2011 and in 2012 took the papyrus to New York, where it was examined by Roger Bagnall, director of the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University. After Bagnall’s initial assessment that the fragment was ancient, based on handwriting and other features, further analysis began in earnest.Over the past two years, extensive testing of the papyrus and the carbon ink, as well as analysis of the handwriting and grammar, all indicate that the material fragment was created between the sixth and ninth centuries C.E. None of the testing has produced any evidence that the fragment is a modern fabrication or forgery.Two radiocarbon tests were conducted to determine the age of the papyrus. In the first test, the sample size was too small and resulted in an unreliable date. A second test performed by Noreen Tuross at Harvard University in conjunction with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution dated the origination of the piece of papyrus to between 659 and 859 C.E. Other testing with FT-IR microspectroscopy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology confirmed the homogeneous chemical composition of the papyrus and examined patterns of oxidation.At Columbia University, James Yardley and Alexis Hagadorn used a technique called micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine that the carbon character of the ink matched samples of other papyri that date from the first to eighth centuries C.E.Malcolm Choat from Macquarie University examined the fragment at HDS and offered an independent assessment of the handwriting.  Microscopic and multispectral imaging provided other significant information about the nature and extent of the damage and helped resolve a variety of questions about possible forgery. If, for example, ink had pooled on the lower fibers of the front, it would have shown that the papyrus was written on after it had been damaged. Or if the alpha had overwritten a sigma in line four, it would have shown that someone tampered with an ancient fragment that read “the woman” by changing it into “my wife.” No evidence of this kind is apparent, however.After all the research was complete, King weighed all the evidence of the age and characteristics of the papyrus and ink, handwriting, language, and historical context. She concluded that the fragment is almost certainly a product of early Christians, not a modern forger.Nothing is known about the discovery of the fragment — which measures only about 1½-by-3 inches — but it is assumed to have come from Egypt because it is written in Coptic, the form of the Egyptian language used by Christians there starting in the Roman imperial period.Twice in the tiny fragment, Jesus speaks of his mother, his wife, and a female disciple — one of whom may be identified as “Mary.” The disciples discuss whether Mary is worthy, and Jesus states that “she can be my disciple.” The real author of the fragment is not known and would likely remain unknown even if more of the text of the Gospel of Jesus’s Wife had survived. This remaining piece is too small to know anything definite about who may have composed, read, or circulated it, except that they were Christians.“This gospel fragment provides a reason to reconsider what we thought we knew by asking what the role claims of Jesus’ marital status played historically in early Christian controversies over marriage, celibacy, and family,” King said.last_img read more

Saint Mary’s 2018 student government association committee reviews

first_imgCommunity CommitteeCommunity Committee chair and sophomore Maria Bruno works to promote what it means to be a Belle by encouraging students to participate as much as possible in a variety of events — not just those on the Saint Mary’s campus, but in the greater tri-campus community. In the future, the committee plans to improve event publicity within the community by encouraging more advertising across the three campuses. Additionally, it plans to foster a sense of community at Saint Mary’s by hosting a letter-writing event where students can write thank-you notes to faculty and staff, as well as welcome letters to newly accepted students. While the group has made efforts to bring students at Saint Mary’s closer together, it could take more initiative in its event planning.Grade: B Food Services CommitteeFood services committee chair and sophomore Giavanna Paradiso said the committee has had multiple meetings this year with Saint Mary’s dining general manager Ken Acosta. Working with Acosta, the committee has implemented small changes to the dining hall’s menu, such as adding marinated chicken on Tuesdays and Thursdays and a refrigerator featuring gluten-free options. The committee also arranged Food Week, which brought a cake decorating contest, a trail mix bar and an ice cream sundae bar to campus. Paradiso said the committee has plans to make Food Week an annual tradition. The committee also aspires to add more off-campus options for Munch Money and incorporate more student recipes from home in the dining hall, she added. Though the committee has made a few changes to improve dining at Saint Mary’s, it has yet to make any sweeping improvements.Grade: B+ SOPHIA Oversight CommitteeThe SOPHIA Oversight Committee — which changed its name this semester from the SOPHIA Curriculum Committee — allows students to provide suggestions about how the SOPHIA program is implemented. The program has and will still be the core of Saint Mary’s Liberal Arts education — it works toward improving the Saint Mary’s educational experience. The SOPHIA program is not perfect, and the committee has not done many tangible things to improve the program this semester. However, the group is in regular communication with the Saint Mary’s administration and looks forward to identifying issues with the program and rising to reform them. The committee honors the SOPHIA program’s focus on a complete and liberal education and believes that this innately benefits every Saint Mary’s student, neglecting to address the program’s faults.Grade: C+ Mission CommitteeJuniors Terra Nelson and Anna Zappa co-chair the mission committee. They act as liaisons between Campus Ministry, vice president of mission Judy Fean and SGA, while working to increase student connection with the Sisters of the Holy Cross to promote Saint Mary’s core values. Their biggest accomplishment of the semester was establishing a weekly “Lemonade and Le Mans” Mass, which helped increase weekly Mass attendance, drawing an average of 25 attendees each Wednesday. The committee is also in the process of confirming details for a class ring blessing Mass. In addition, it is working to plan a heritage tea at Reidinger House in the spring. While the group has been active this semester, it has yet to execute any substantial plans to further the College’s mission.Grade: B- Big Belle, Little Belle CommitteeThe Big Belle, Little Belle Committee helps freshmen form relationships with juniors. “The relationship between the pairs is to have a mentorship, sister, friendship,” said Moira LeMay, chair of Big Belle, Little Belle. “The committee hopes to encourage belles across classes to interact and build a strong community at Saint Mary’s.” LeMay said Big Belle, Little Belle is currently working to allow transfer students to participate in the program. Big Belle, Little Belle organizes several events each year for big and little Belles alike. Although most of the events are intended for junior and first-year pairs, LeMay said former Big and Little Belles are welcome at activities and events. Overall, Big Belle, Little Belle has done its best to continue programs from previous years. One of its biggest goals has been finding ways to incorporate transfer students, and although they haven’t figured out a set overall plan, they’re working on it.Grade: Bcenter_img Dominique DeMoe | The Observer Tags: 2018 Student Government Insider, Corcoran-Ogden, Saint Mary’s Student Government Association Market and Media CommitteeThe market and media committee did not respond to multiple requests for comment. However, the aim of the committee is to keep students aware of events happening around campus in clubs, departments and other organizations. Additionally, the group aspires to strengthen the connection between the SGA, its executives and the student body. It typically uses social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram to engage with students and publicize SGA events. However, while the committee does important work, it has failed to make any major strides this year.Grade: C Sustainability CommitteeThe sustainability committee is led by juniors Courtney Kroschel and Kassidy Jungles. The pair has worked to represent student sustainability interests at faculty meetings throughout the semester. Establishing more opportunities for recycling on campus was one of the committee’s main goals this year. To do so, they have installed recycling bins in the Cushwa-Leighton Library and other places on campus. Next semester, the committee plans to spearhead a campaign to educate students on responsible recycling. The group has also expressed interest in providing more composting bins at Saint Mary’s, including bringing composting to the dining hall. Overall, the sustainability committee is completing the goals that they set forth for themselves in a timely fashion — however, the committee could take much broader steps to make Saint Mary’s environmentally friendly.Grade: Blast_img read more

Martin County public schools to hold ‘traditional’ high school graduation ceremonies

first_imgPublic schools in Palm Beach and St. Lucie counties announced that they will be holding virtual graduations, while Martin County public schools announced they will postpone their traditional high school graduation ceremonies until late July.Superintendent Laurie Gaylord made the announcement on Thursday via a YouTube video.Gaylord said “The Martin County School District is committed to doing everything possible to celebrate the most significant senior milestone, graduation, in a way that honors your individual and collective accomplishments,”…”We are committed to providing you with the traditional ceremonies you have overwhelmingly asked for, earned, and deserve,”School district officials will seek input from public health experts about how to safely hold the ceremonies.last_img read more

Raiders place Martin on IR, sign Corey Liuget

first_imgALAMEDA — The Raiders did some roster shuffling Sunday that helped clarify two positions but created more questions at another.The Raiders signed veteran free agent tackle Corey Liuget, while placing running back Doug Martin on injured reserve and waiving long-snapper Andrew DePaola.Martin, who coach Jon Gruden said had a shoulder injury, cannot come back to play for the Raiders this season. He’ll either remain on I.R. and collect his $2 million salary, or negotiate a settlement when …last_img read more

Hackers For National Security Taking ‘Friendly’ Fire

first_imgGrowing Phone Scams: 5 Tips To Avoid How to Write a Welcome Email to New Employees? Terrorists could easily sabotage large portions of the nation’s critical infrastructure. Security is so weak in many industrial control systems that even an average hacker could shut down water and power plants, damage nuclear facilities and freeze automobile and aircraft assembly lines.The threat is so real that right or wrong, some security experts are publicly disclosing the weakest links to force action.The Security RenegadesLeading the renegades is Dale Peterson, founder of Sunrise, Fla.-based Digital Bond, which specializes in monitor, control and alarm systems for industrial plants. Peterson runs Project Basecamp, in which researchers demonstrate the fragility of critical control systems.Basecamp’s latest target was Germany-based Smart Software Solutions, better known as 3S. Peterson’s commandos found major vulnerabilities in 3S’ CoDeSys, a software tool for programmable logic controllers (PLCs), which are computers that automate industrial tasks, such as operating valves. More than 250 ICS makers use CoDeSys.The vulnerabilities would give access to the PLC upload code without an ID or password. That means a hacker would have full control of a controller. In exposing the weakness, Basecamp researchers also released exploit tools so 3S customers could test the vulnerabilities themselves.Inadequate ResponseThe Department of Homeland Security responded with an alert that recommended manufacturers “take defensive measures to minimize the risk of exploitation of these vulnerabilities.”Tuesday, 3S confirmed the problem, saying, “We take this issue very seriously and are currently working on a solution.”At the same time, the company acknowledged that securing its products against cyber attacks was not its focus. “In general, we do not offer any standard tools in CoDeSys which are to protect the controller from a serious cyber attack.”That attitude is exactly why Peterson launched Basecamp, which he insisted discloses vulnerabilities already known to hackers and the manufacturers. His goal is to get vendors to stop making industrial control products that are “insecure by design” and to fix what is already in use. So far, his strategy hasn’t worked.“They complain and everyone says that it shouldn’t be made public, yet we still don’t see it getting corrected,” Peterson said.Was Stuxnet Not Warning Enough?What can happen when hackers gain access to an industrial control system was demonstrated in Iran in 2010. A virus dubbed Stuxnet was unleashed in an Iranian nuclear facility, damaging centrifuges used to enrich uranium. The New York Times reported that the U.S. and Israeli governments developed the malware together.3S is not the first company targeted by Basecamp. The research group disclosed in January vulnerabilities in widely used PLCs made by General Electric, Rockwell Automation, Schneider Modicon, Koyo Electronics and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories.The researchers also have released exploit modules for some of the vulnerabilities in the popular Metasploit tool kit used by security experts and hackers.Homeland Security does not support the work of groups like Basecamp. Marty Edwards, director of the department’s Control Systems Security Program, told Wired the agency “does not encourage the release of sensitive vulnerability information” until a solution is ready for distribution.A ‘Pre-9/11 Moment’Partisan politics has prevented Congress from passing a cybersecurity bill to protect the nation from attacks on critical infrastructure. Lawmakers’ inaction comes as the Obama administration warns that a strike can happen at anytime.In a speech to a group of business leaders in New York this month, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said the nation needed to heed the warning signs and bolster its cyber defenses to avoid another tragedy like the terrorist attack on Sept. 11, 2001. According to Panetta, the country is in a “pre-9/11 moment.”How far Congress will go to force manufacturers to secure industrial systems remains to be seen. Replacing or upgrading them would be expensive and companies would lobby hard against laws that would force them to make changes.“We’ve been very disappointed in the Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. government,” Peterson said. “They have not said out loud that these devices are vulnerable and need to be replaced.” Peterson said he’ll continue exposing security weaknesses.His efforts are unlikely to produce much more than an occasional headline. Creating national cyber defenses requires forceful government action, private-public interaction and cooperation among companies and industries not seen since World War II. Let’s hope that happens before we’re hit again. Tags:#basecamp#cracking#cybersecurity#hacking#legislation#regulation#security#stuxnet Related Posts center_img antone gonsalves Why You Love Online Quizzes 7 Types of Video that will Make a Massive Impac…last_img read more

Trump welcomes college sports champions to the White House

first_imgBrace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Trump posed for photos with the players throughout the Rose Garden, South Lawn and inside the White House and then sent them off to the Oval Office for a quick tour. At one point, the president playfully got into a wrestling pose with members of the Penn State men’s team.Chatting with the Ohio State men’s volleyball team, he popped a colorful volleyball into the air.When Trump spotted Maryland lacrosse attacker Dylan Maltz wearing a blue Trump ’16 tie, he pumped his hand and brought him to the front of the team’s riser near the South Lawn. “Look at that, folks,” Trump said, holding up the tie to journalists.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutIn the Red Room of the White House, the NRA-backed Trump greeted the West Virginia’s co-ed rifle team by saying, “We saved the Second Amendment!” Then he asked, “So who is the best shot?” At another point, joined by Education Secretary Betsy DeVos, Trump bowed his head in prayer along with members of the Oklahoma softball team.South Carolina coach Dawn Staley said after her team won the NCAA title in April that it would go to the White House if invited because “it’s what it stands for. It’s what national champions do.” She told The Associated Press in late September that she hadn’t received an invite and “that spoke volumes.” Maryland lacrosse player Dylan Maltz, of Ashburn, Va., shows off his tie to President Donald Trump as Trump meets with NCAA championship teams at the White House, Friday, Nov. 17, 2017, in Washington. (AP Photo/Evan Vucci)WASHINGTON — Indoors and out, the White House was overrun with school spirit Friday as President Donald Trump welcomed college sports champions and declared them “great athletes.” Too many of them to fit in one room, the teams took up positions all around the mansion for separate photo ops with the president.In all, 18 NCAA teams attended the event at the White House; South Carolina’s women’s basketball team declined the invitation.Teams including the Texas A&M women’s equestrian team, Pennsylvania State University’s women’s rugby team, and the University of Washington’s women’s rowing team gathered around the White House grounds to be recognized for their championships.ADVERTISEMENT Danica Patrick to end racing career at next year’s Indy 500 Read Next CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA In a statement Thursday night, Staley said the team did end up hearing from the White House but chose not to attend.“As I’ve been saying since our practices for this season started, all of our focus is on the season ahead,” she said. “The only invitation we are thinking about is to the 2018 NCAA Tournament.”Trump sparred with professional athletes earlier this year when NBA star Stephen Curry said his championship-winning Golden State Warriors didn’t wish to meet with Trump. The feud erupted as Trump was lambasting NFL athletes for kneeling in protest during the national anthem.North Carolina’s men’s basketball team said earlier this year it could not agree on a date for a visit. Trump hosted the Air Force Academy football team at the White House for a Commander-in-Chief’s trophy ceremony in May and the champion Clemson Tigers football team in June.Other champion schools at the White House on Friday included: the University of Oklahoma’s men’s golf, women’s and men’s gymnastics, the University of Maryland women’s lacrosse, the University of Virginia’s men’s tennis, Arizona State University women’s triathlon, University of Florida baseball, McKendree University’s women’s bowling, Texas A&M men’s indoor track and field, and University of Utah skiing.ADVERTISEMENT Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion LATEST STORIEScenter_img Kris Aquino ‘pretty chill about becoming irrelevant’ Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 View comments Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss PLAY LIST 02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes00:58Trump blames media, Democrats for impeachment during Kentucky rally01:37Protesters burn down Iran consulate in Najaf01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohort MOST READlast_img read more

Even small companies may be able to cut Amazonlike deals

first_imgNEW YORK — A company doesn’t need to be as big as Amazon to get a good deal on real estate.Whether a small business wants to buy or rent, it may have leverage with landlords or local governments to get breaks on rent or taxes. It’s especially doable if a company can be a drawing card that helps boost local commerce or has significant job creation plans. The key is often to look for real estate in an area that needs an economic boost.Even the smallest and newest businesses may be able to negotiate, says Seth Kaplowitz, who teaches real estate courses at San Diego State University. For example, a young doctor or dentist willing to start a practice in an area that needs more medical or dental services may be able to get financial help in buying and/or setting up an office.Small businesses can also band together and negotiate as a bloc, Kaplowitz says.“They can say, ‘this is what we’re bringing to the downtown. What can you do to help us?’” he says.Amazon, which plans headquarters in New York’s Long Island City section and Arlington, Virginia, each employing 25,000 people, won a promise from New York officials for at least $2.8 billion in tax credits and grants and expects $573 million in breaks from Virginia. Amazon, which is moving into a formerly industrial boat basin in New York, pledged money to fund job training programs for public housing residents, provide space for a new school and pay into a city fund that will be used for projects that benefit the community, Mayor Bill de Blasio says.When businesses that cater to consumers are looking to rent, they can get favourable leasing terms and help with renovations and repairs if they have an attractive or unique brand that’s likely to draw shoppers or other businesses to a neighbourhood or small shopping centre. A retailer or service provider who offers “something nobody else has in the neighbourhood” will appeal to a landlord, Kaplowitz says.Owners are also likely to get a better deal in a neighbourhood that’s been depressed but is showing signs of turning around.But even companies that cater to other businesses can get a deal. If they are willing to rent in a building that’s sat empty for some time, landlords are likely to make more concessions.Owners need to first figure out if they want to buy or rent. If they’re interested in buying, they should consider if the business is likely to outgrow a property within a few years? And if it does, is it feasible to add on to the space?Owning a building means being responsible for its upkeep. Does the owner have the time or available staffers to deal with maintenance and emergencies? And financial resources for unexpected expenses like damage from severe weather?Does the business have predictable or stable cash flow? If it does, buying may be best, Kaplowitz says.“If you’re going to be around for a while, you want to own,” he says. “If you’re willing to wait out the up and down cycles, ownership is the way to travel.”_____For more small business news, insights and inspiration, sign up for our free weekly newsletter here: Joyce Rosenberg at . Her work can be found here: M. Rosenberg, The Associated Presslast_img read more

35000 donation by Tourmaline Oil allows Womens Resource Society to buy new

first_imgFORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The Fort St. John Women’s Resource Society got a big boost last month after Tourmaline Oil donated the proceeds from its Annual Golf Tournament.The event, which took place at Lakepoint Golf and Country Club on July 19th, featured entertaining live and silent auctions, a 50/50 ticket draw, and a call for participants to “Fill-A-Truck” with non-perishable donations for the food pantry at the Centre.Society Board members Jen Pimm and Kelsey Dawley attended the tournament’s dinner, where Pimm spoke on behalf of the organization. “We are a front-line organization dealing with violence against women and children, community outreach, poverty, advocacy, harm reduction, food security, and much more. Your donation stays in our community and directly impacts local people. Without the support of our community, we could not do this important work, so thank you, we are very grateful.”After the tournament’s fundraising total was added up, Tourmaline said that it would like to match the donation, bringing the donation total to an incredible $35,150.“This means so much to us,” said Pimm. “We need a new furnace, and we have been trying to find room in the budget for this kind of capital expenditure. Thank you Tourmaline, the sponsors, and everyone who came out to golf!”Executive director Amanda Trotter explained that the donation was much-needed by the Society, which is currently seeing upwards of 500 clients each month.last_img read more

An Evening Under the Stars

first_imgFORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The Sunrise Rotary Club is hosting the gala fundraising event an ‘Evening Under the Stars’ February 16th, 2019 at the Pomeroy Hotel & Conference Center.This is a major fundraiser for the year which includes live entertainment, dinner and live and silent auctions.Funds raised from this event will go towards two projects. The Fort St. John Rotary Spray Park is the local project and the international project is in support of the End Polio Now Campaign, Rotary’s international fight for global polio eradication. Tickets for the event cost $100.00 each and are available to purchase from Sunrise Rotary Members, SunFM, The Investors Group or contact Amy Titley of the Rotary club at 250.261.8032.The evening starts at 5:30 pm with Cocktails followed by dinner at 6:30 pm Dinner. The featured entertainment for the evening will be live music performed by Last Horse Standing.To view, the FB Event Page CLICK HERElast_img read more